Healing AC Joint Separations and Shoulder Injury
Shoulder problems including pain, are one of the more common reasons for physician visits for musculoskeletal symptoms. The shoulder is the most movable joint in the body. However, it is an unstable joint because of the range of motion allowed. This instability increases the likelihood of joint injury, often leading to a degenerative process in which tissues break down and no longer function well.

Shoulder pain may be localized or may be referred to areas around the shoulder or down the arm. Disease within the body (such as gallbladder, liver, or heart disease, or disease of the cervical spine of the neck) also may generate pain that the brain may interpret as arising from the shoulder. Conversely, pain felt in the region of the shoulder blade or scapula nearly always has its origin in the neck.

The shoulder can dislocate either forward, backward, or downward. Not only does the arm appear out of position when the shoulder dislocates, but the dislocation also produces pain. Muscle spasms may increase the intensity of pain. Swelling, numbness, weakness, and bruising are likely to develop. Problems seen with a dislocated shoulder or tearing of the ligaments or tendons reinforcing the joint capsule and, less commonly, nerve damage. Doctors usually diagnose a dislocation by a physical examination, and x rays may be taken to confirm the diagnosis and to rule out a related fracture.

Doctors treat a dislocation by putting the head of the humerus back into the joint socket (glenoid fossa) of the scapula a procedure called manipulation and reduction (M&R). This is usually followed up with an x ray to make sure the reduction did not fracture the surrounding bones. The arm is then immobilized in a sling or a device called a shoulder immobilizer for several days. Usually the doctor recommends resting the shoulder and applying ice three or four times a day. After pain and swelling have been controlled, the patient enters a rehabilitation program that includes exercises to restore the range of motion of the shoulder and strengthen the muscles to prevent future dislocations. These exercises may progress from simple motion to the use of weights.

After treatment and recovery, a previously dislocated shoulder may remain more susceptible to re-injury, especially in young, active individuals. Ligaments can be stretched and may tear due to dislocation. Torn ligaments and other problems resulting from dislocation can increase the chance of repeated dislocation. A shoulder that dislocates severely or often, injuring surrounding tissues or nerves, usually requires surgery to repair the damaged parts of the shoulder.

Sometimes the doctor performs surgery through a tiny incision into which a small scope (arthroscope) is inserted to observe the inside of the joint. After this procedure, called arthroscopic surgery, the shoulder is generally restrained by a sling for 3 to 6 weeks, while full recovery, including physical therapy, takes several months. Arthroscopic techniques involving the shoulder are relatively new and many surgeons prefer to repair a recurrent dislocating shoulder by the time-tested open surgery under direct vision. There are usually fewer repeat dislocations and improved movement following open surgery, but it may take a little longer to regain motion.

Adopted from mayoclinic.com